Record Labels and A&R
In short, record labels are in the business of creating and selling recordings. Record labels work directly with artists and producers to coordinate the writing and production of the recordings, and then coordinate the manufacturing, distribution, marketing, promotion of the recording to ensure it sells around the world. In this article, we cover the basics of what a record label is and more about the most important person to you as an artist or manager – the A&R reps.
Departments of Major Labels
- Artist & Repertoire (A&R)
- Marketing and Promotion
- Product Management
- Business Affairs and Legal
Though some labels still have fully staffed departments in each of the above areas, most major labels have almost systematically downsized over the past decade and therefore some of the above departments are merged into a single role looked after by a single staff person.
Independent and smaller record labels, on the other hand, have much less staff and resources. Smaller labels don’t have fully-staffed departments in each of the divisions. Some of them only have up to 2 staff people that are responsible for more than one of the divisions. While each person may also be contributing to A&R, promotion, communications, production, sales, at the same time. It’s more of a ‘group effort’ when it comes to independent labels. Their teams may include the following roles:
- Marketing & Partnerships
- Digital Marketing
- Radio Promotion
- Administration & Business Affairs
Management Company-Owned Labels
Many artist management companies also own and operate their own record labels, as they see the needs to support their artists in the business of selling recordings because they either can’t get a record deal or they don’t want a record deal. In these cases, the managers may hire a single label manager, or utilize the staff that they already have working at their management companies to also perform the duties of the record label. Depending on how big the label grows, they may build out more standard divisions.
The Role of A&R
A&R are responsible for finding new talent to sign to the label, develop the artists creative and recording abilities, and oversee the entire production process. The A&R executive that is responsible for getting your artist signed to the label is the primary contact person at the label that you will be doing business with as a manager. Because of this I’m only focusing this article on the role of this person and not the rest of the people at the record label.
A&R reps are creative, have a very strong understanding of music composition, production, the current music scene, and an even stronger understanding of what will sell in the current marketplace. Often times, all staff people at any given label are encouraged to find new talent and share their music with other people at the label, primarily the president and/or the primary A&R representatives. A&R people are considered to be one of the most important people in the industry, so if you’re looking to get your artist signed to a label, then developing connections and building relationships with them should be on the top of your priority list. If there is no one person that is dedicated A&R rep, then your main contact will generally be with the most senior person at the label. In summary, A&R people are responsible for:
- Scouting talent
- Nurturing and developing talent
- Overseeing the recording process
- Assisting with marketing and promotion of recordings
What the A&R Reps Look For
- Work ethic
- Commitment to their music and career
- Good people (no one likes to work with difficult people)
- Star quality
- Ability to be a star in the near future
Jamie New Johnson